org.apache.lucene.index.memory

Class MemoryIndex



  • public class MemoryIndex
    extends Object
    High-performance single-document main memory Apache Lucene fulltext search index.

    Overview

    This class is a replacement/substitute for a large subset of RAMDirectory functionality. It is designed to enable maximum efficiency for on-the-fly matchmaking combining structured and fuzzy fulltext search in realtime streaming applications such as Nux XQuery based XML message queues, publish-subscribe systems for Blogs/newsfeeds, text chat, data acquisition and distribution systems, application level routers, firewalls, classifiers, etc. Rather than targeting fulltext search of infrequent queries over huge persistent data archives (historic search), this class targets fulltext search of huge numbers of queries over comparatively small transient realtime data (prospective search). For example as in

     float score = search(String text, Query query)
     

    Each instance can hold at most one Lucene "document", with a document containing zero or more "fields", each field having a name and a fulltext value. The fulltext value is tokenized (split and transformed) into zero or more index terms (aka words) on addField(), according to the policy implemented by an Analyzer. For example, Lucene analyzers can split on whitespace, normalize to lower case for case insensitivity, ignore common terms with little discriminatory value such as "he", "in", "and" (stop words), reduce the terms to their natural linguistic root form such as "fishing" being reduced to "fish" (stemming), resolve synonyms/inflexions/thesauri (upon indexing and/or querying), etc. For details, see Lucene Analyzer Intro.

    Arbitrary Lucene queries can be run against this class - see Lucene Query Syntax as well as Query Parser Rules. Note that a Lucene query selects on the field names and associated (indexed) tokenized terms, not on the original fulltext(s) - the latter are not stored but rather thrown away immediately after tokenization.

    For some interesting background information on search technology, see Bob Wyman's Prospective Search, Jim Gray's A Call to Arms - Custom subscriptions, and Tim Bray's On Search, the Series.

    Example Usage

     Analyzer analyzer = new SimpleAnalyzer(version);
     MemoryIndex index = new MemoryIndex();
     index.addField("content", "Readings about Salmons and other select Alaska fishing Manuals", analyzer);
     index.addField("author", "Tales of James", analyzer);
     QueryParser parser = new QueryParser(version, "content", analyzer);
     float score = index.search(parser.parse("+author:james +salmon~ +fish* manual~"));
     if (score > 0.0f) {
         System.out.println("it's a match");
     } else {
         System.out.println("no match found");
     }
     System.out.println("indexData=" + index.toString());
     

    Example XQuery Usage

     (: An XQuery that finds all books authored by James that have something to do with "salmon fishing manuals", sorted by relevance :)
     declare namespace lucene = "java:nux.xom.pool.FullTextUtil";
     declare variable $query := "+salmon~ +fish* manual~"; (: any arbitrary Lucene query can go here :)
     
     for $book in /books/book[author="James" and lucene:match(abstract, $query) > 0.0]
     let $score := lucene:match($book/abstract, $query)
     order by $score descending
     return $book
     

    Thread safety guarantees

    MemoryIndex is not normally thread-safe for adds or queries. However, queries are thread-safe after freeze() has been called.

    Performance Notes

    Internally there's a new data structure geared towards efficient indexing and searching, plus the necessary support code to seamlessly plug into the Lucene framework.

    This class performs very well for very small texts (e.g. 10 chars) as well as for large texts (e.g. 10 MB) and everything in between. Typically, it is about 10-100 times faster than RAMDirectory. Note that RAMDirectory has particularly large efficiency overheads for small to medium sized texts, both in time and space. Indexing a field with N tokens takes O(N) in the best case, and O(N logN) in the worst case. Memory consumption is probably larger than for RAMDirectory.

    Example throughput of many simple term queries over a single MemoryIndex: ~500000 queries/sec on a MacBook Pro, jdk 1.5.0_06, server VM. As always, your mileage may vary.

    If you're curious about the whereabouts of bottlenecks, run java 1.5 with the non-perturbing '-server -agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,depth=10' flags, then study the trace log and correlate its hotspot trailer with its call stack headers (see hprof tracing ).

    • Constructor Summary

      Constructors 
      Constructor and Description
      MemoryIndex()
      Constructs an empty instance that will not store offsets or payloads.
      MemoryIndex(boolean storeOffsets)
      Constructs an empty instance that can optionally store the start and end character offset of each token term in the text.
      MemoryIndex(boolean storeOffsets, boolean storePayloads)
      Constructs an empty instance with the option of storing offsets and payloads.
    • Constructor Detail

      • MemoryIndex

        public MemoryIndex()
        Constructs an empty instance that will not store offsets or payloads.
      • MemoryIndex

        public MemoryIndex(boolean storeOffsets)
        Constructs an empty instance that can optionally store the start and end character offset of each token term in the text. This can be useful for highlighting of hit locations with the Lucene highlighter package. But it will not store payloads; use another constructor for that.
        Parameters:
        storeOffsets - whether or not to store the start and end character offset of each token term in the text
      • MemoryIndex

        public MemoryIndex(boolean storeOffsets,
                           boolean storePayloads)
        Constructs an empty instance with the option of storing offsets and payloads.
        Parameters:
        storeOffsets - store term offsets at each position
        storePayloads - store term payloads at each position
    • Method Detail

      • addField

        public void addField(String fieldName,
                             String text,
                             Analyzer analyzer)
        Convenience method; Tokenizes the given field text and adds the resulting terms to the index; Equivalent to adding an indexed non-keyword Lucene Field that is tokenized, not stored, termVectorStored with positions (or termVectorStored with positions and offsets),
        Parameters:
        fieldName - a name to be associated with the text
        text - the text to tokenize and index.
        analyzer - the analyzer to use for tokenization
      • fromDocument

        public static MemoryIndex fromDocument(Iterable<? extends IndexableField> document,
                                               Analyzer analyzer,
                                               boolean storeOffsets,
                                               boolean storePayloads)
        Builds a MemoryIndex from a lucene Document using an analyzer
        Parameters:
        document - the document to index
        analyzer - the analyzer to use
        storeOffsets - true if offsets should be stored
        storePayloads - true if payloads should be stored
        Returns:
        a MemoryIndex
      • fromDocument

        public static MemoryIndex fromDocument(Iterable<? extends IndexableField> document,
                                               Analyzer analyzer,
                                               boolean storeOffsets,
                                               boolean storePayloads,
                                               long maxReusedBytes)
        Builds a MemoryIndex from a lucene Document using an analyzer
        Parameters:
        document - the document to index
        analyzer - the analyzer to use
        storeOffsets - true if offsets should be stored
        storePayloads - true if payloads should be stored
        maxReusedBytes - the number of bytes that should remain in the internal memory pools after reset() is called
        Returns:
        a MemoryIndex
      • keywordTokenStream

        public <T> TokenStream keywordTokenStream(Collection<T> keywords)
        Convenience method; Creates and returns a token stream that generates a token for each keyword in the given collection, "as is", without any transforming text analysis. The resulting token stream can be fed into addField(String, TokenStream), perhaps wrapped into another TokenFilter, as desired.
        Parameters:
        keywords - the keywords to generate tokens for
        Returns:
        the corresponding token stream
      • addField

        public void addField(String fieldName,
                             TokenStream stream)
        Equivalent to addField(fieldName, stream, 1.0f).
        Parameters:
        fieldName - a name to be associated with the text
        stream - the token stream to retrieve tokens from
      • addField

        public void addField(String fieldName,
                             TokenStream stream,
                             float boost)
        Iterates over the given token stream and adds the resulting terms to the index; Equivalent to adding a tokenized, indexed, termVectorStored, unstored, Lucene Field. Finally closes the token stream. Note that untokenized keywords can be added with this method via keywordTokenStream(Collection), the Lucene KeywordTokenizer or similar utilities.
        Parameters:
        fieldName - a name to be associated with the text
        stream - the token stream to retrieve tokens from.
        boost - the boost factor for hits for this field
        See Also:
        Field.setBoost(float)
      • addField

        public void addField(String fieldName,
                             TokenStream stream,
                             float boost,
                             int positionIncrementGap)
        Iterates over the given token stream and adds the resulting terms to the index; Equivalent to adding a tokenized, indexed, termVectorStored, unstored, Lucene Field. Finally closes the token stream. Note that untokenized keywords can be added with this method via keywordTokenStream(Collection), the Lucene KeywordTokenizer or similar utilities.
        Parameters:
        fieldName - a name to be associated with the text
        stream - the token stream to retrieve tokens from.
        boost - the boost factor for hits for this field
        positionIncrementGap - the position increment gap if fields with the same name are added more than once
        See Also:
        Field.setBoost(float)
      • addField

        public void addField(String fieldName,
                             TokenStream tokenStream,
                             float boost,
                             int positionIncrementGap,
                             int offsetGap)
        Iterates over the given token stream and adds the resulting terms to the index; Equivalent to adding a tokenized, indexed, termVectorStored, unstored, Lucene Field. Finally closes the token stream. Note that untokenized keywords can be added with this method via keywordTokenStream(Collection), the Lucene KeywordTokenizer or similar utilities.
        Parameters:
        fieldName - a name to be associated with the text
        tokenStream - the token stream to retrieve tokens from. It's guaranteed to be closed no matter what.
        boost - the boost factor for hits for this field
        positionIncrementGap - the position increment gap if fields with the same name are added more than once
        offsetGap - the offset gap if fields with the same name are added more than once
        See Also:
        Field.setBoost(float)
      • setSimilarity

        public void setSimilarity(Similarity similarity)
        Set the Similarity to be used for calculating field norms
      • createSearcher

        public IndexSearcher createSearcher()
        Creates and returns a searcher that can be used to execute arbitrary Lucene queries and to collect the resulting query results as hits.
        Returns:
        a searcher
      • freeze

        public void freeze()
        Prepares the MemoryIndex for querying in a non-lazy way.

        After calling this you can query the MemoryIndex from multiple threads, but you cannot subsequently add new data.

      • search

        public float search(Query query)
        Convenience method that efficiently returns the relevance score by matching this index against the given Lucene query expression.
        Parameters:
        query - an arbitrary Lucene query to run against this index
        Returns:
        the relevance score of the matchmaking; A number in the range [0.0 .. 1.0], with 0.0 indicating no match. The higher the number the better the match.
      • toStringDebug

        public String toStringDebug()
        Returns a String representation of the index data for debugging purposes.
        Returns:
        the string representation
      • reset

        public void reset()
        Resets the MemoryIndex to its initial state and recycles all internal buffers.